AMA's Code of Medical Ethics pinion 7.01 - Records of Physicians: Availability of Information to Other Physicians
The interest of the patient is paramount in the practice of medicine, and everything that can reasonably and lawfully be done to serve that interest must be done by all physicians who have served or are serving the patient. A physician who formerly treated a patient should not refuse for any reason to make records of that patient promptly available on request to another physician presently treating the patient. Proper authorization for the use of records must be granted by the patient. Medical reports should not be withheld because of an unpaid bill for medical services. (IV)
Report: Issued prior to April 1977Opinion 7.02 - Records of Physician: Information and Patients
Notes made in treating a patient are primarily for the physician’s own use and constitute his or her personal property. However, on request of the patient, a physician should provide a copy or a summary of the record to the patient or to another physician, an attorney, or other person designated by the patient.
Most states have enacted statutes that authorize patient access to medical records. These statutes vary in scope and mechanism for permitting patients to review or copy medical records. Access to mental health records, particularly, may be limited by statute or regulation. A physician should become familiar with the applicable laws, rules, or regulations on patient access to medical records.
The record is a confidential document involving the patient-physician relationship and should not be communicated to a third party without the patient’s prior written consent, unless required by law or to protect the welfare of the individual or the community. Medical reports should not be withheld because of an unpaid bill for medical services. Physicians may charge a reasonable fee for copying medical records. (IV)Opinion 7.025 - Records of Physicians: Access by Non-Treating Medical Staff
Physicians who use or receive information from medical records share in the responsibility for preserving patient confidentiality and should play an integral role in the designing of confidentiality safeguards in health care institutions. Physicians have a responsibility to be aware of the appropriate guidelines in their health care institution, as well as the applicable federal and state laws.
Informal case consultations that involve the disclosure of detailed medical information are appropriate in the absence of consent only if the patient cannot be identified from the information.
Only physicians or other health care professionals who are involved in managing the patient, including providing consultative, therapeutic, or diagnostic services, may access the patient’s confidential medical information. All others must obtain explicit consent to access the information. Monitoring user access to electronic or written medical information is an appropriate and desirable means for detecting breaches of confidentiality. Physicians should encourage the development and use of such monitoring systems.
This opinion focuses on the issue of access to medical records by medical staff not involved in the treatment or diagnosis of patients. It does not address the need to access medical records for clinical research, epidemiological research, quality assurance, or administrative purposes. (IV)
Report: Issued December 1999 based on the report "Records of Physicians: Access by Non-Treating Medical Staff," adopted June 1999Opinion 7.03 - Records of Physician upon Retirement or Departure from a Group
A patient’s records may be necessary to the patient in the future not only for medical care but also for employment, insurance, litigation, or other reasons. When a physician retires or dies, patients should be notified and urged to find a new physician and should be informed that upon authorization, records will be sent to the new physician. Records which may be of value to a patient and which are not forwarded to a new physician should be retained, either by the treating physician, another physician, or such other person lawfully permitted to act as a custodian of the records.
The patients of a physician who leaves a group practice should be notified that the physician is leaving the group. Patients of the physician should also be informed of the physician’s new address and offered the opportunity to have their medical records forwarded to the departing physician at his or her new practice location. It is unethical to withhold such information upon request of a patient. If the responsibility for notifying patients falls to the departing physician rather than to the group, the group should not interfere with the discharge of these duties by withholding patient lists or other necessary information. (IV)
Report: Issued prior to April 1977; Updated June 1994, June 1996 and February 2002Opinion 7.04 - Sale of a Medical Practice
A physician or the estate of a deceased physician may sell the elements that comprise his or her practice, such as furniture, fixtures, equipment, office leasehold, and goodwill. In the sale of a medical practice, the purchaser is buying not only furniture and fixtures, but also goodwill, ie, the opportunity to take over the patients of the seller. A patient’s records may be necessary to the patient in the future not only for medical care but also for employment, insurance, litigation, matriculation, or other reasons. Therefore, the transfer of records of patients is subject to the following:
(1) The physician (or the estate) must ensure that all medical records are transferred to another physician or entity who is held to the same standards of confidentiality and is lawfully permitted to act as custodian of the records.
(2) All active patients should be notified that the physician (or the estate) is transferring the practice to another physician or entity who will retain custody of their records and that at their written request, within a reasonable time as specified in the notice, the records (or copies) will be sent to another physician or entity of their choice.
(3) A reasonable charge may be made for the cost of locating, duplicating, and mailing records. (IV)
Report: Issued July 1983; Updated June 2000Opinion 7.05 - Retention of Medical Records
Physicians have an obligation to retain patient records which may reasonably be of value to a patient. The following guidelines are offered to assist physicians in meeting their ethical and legal obligations:
(1) Medical considerations are the primary basis for deciding how long to retain medical records. For example, operative notes and chemotherapy records should always be part of the patient’s chart. In deciding whether to keep certain parts of the record, an appropriate criterion is whether a physician would want the information if he or she were seeing the patient for the first time.
(2) If a particular record no longer needs to be kept for medical reasons, the physician should check state laws to see if there is a requirement that records be kept for a minimum length of time. Most states will not have such a provision. If they do, it will be part of the statutory code or state licensing board.
(3) In all cases, medical records should be kept for at least as long as the length of time of the statute of limitations for medical malpractice claims. The statute of limitations may be three or more years, depending on the state law. State medical associations and insurance carriers are the best resources for this information.
(4) Whatever the statute of limitations, a physician should measure time from the last professional contact with the patient.
(5) If a patient is a minor, the statute of limitations for medical malpractice claims may not apply until the patient reaches the age of majority.
(6) Immunization records always must be kept.
(7) The records of any patient covered by Medicare or Medicaid must be kept at least five years.
(8) In order to preserve confidentiality when discarding old records, all documents should be destroyed.
(9) Before discarding old records, patients should be given an opportunity to claim the records or have them sent to another physician, if it is feasible to give them the opportunity. (IV, V)
Report: Issued June 1994
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